II.    CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS. 1

 

A.   Introduction. 1

1.    Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law.. 1

2.    Harmless Error 2

3.    Plain Error 4

4.    Structural Error 4

 

B.    Pretrial Decisions in Criminal Cases. 5

1.    Appointment of Expert Witness 5

2.    Bail 5

3.    Bill of Particulars. 6

4.    Brady Violations 6

5.    Competency to Stand Trial 7

6.    Confessions 8

7.    Confidential Informants 8

8.    Consolidation of Counts. 9

9.    Continuances. 9

10.    Defenses. 10

11.    Discovery. 11

a.      Depositions 11

b.     Jencks Act 12

c.      Sanctions. 12

12.    Discriminatory (Selective) Prosecution. 13

13.    Dismissals. 13

14.    Evidentiary Hearings. 16

15.    Ex Parte Hearings. 17

16.    Ex Post Facto. 17

17.    Extradition. 17

18.    Faretta Requests (Waive Counsel) 18

19.    Franks Hearing. 19

20.    Fugitive Status. 19

21.    Grand Juries. 20

22.    Guilty Pleas. 20

a.      Rule 11. 20

b.     Voluntariness. 21

c.      Withdrawal 21

23.    Immunity Agreements 22

24.    In Camera Proceedings. 22

25.    Indictments and Informations 23

a.      Constructive Amendments. 23

b.     Dismissals. 23

c.      Duplicitous/Multiplicitous 23

d.     Misjoinder 24

e.      Prosecutorial Misconduct 24

f.      Sufficiency. 25

g.      Validity. 25

26.    In Limine Orders. 26

27.    Interpreters 26

28.    Investigators 26

29.    Judicial Estoppel 26

30.    Judicial Notice. 27

31.    Jurisdiction. 27

32.    Jury Demand. 27

33.    Jury Waiver 28

34.    Juveniles. 28

34.    Lack of Prosecution. 29

35.    Law of the Case. 29

36.    Lineups. 29

37.    Magistrate Judges. 30

38.    Miranda Rights. 31

39.    Motion to Quash. 33

40.    Out‑of‑Court Identification. 33

41.    Plea Agreements. 34

a.      Breaches/Enforcement 34

b.     Interpretation. 35

c.      Negotiations 35

d.     Waiver 36

e.      Withdrawal of Plea. 36

42.    Preclusion of Proffered Defense. 36

43.    Pre-indictment Delay. 38

44.    Pretrial Detention and Release. 38

45.    Pretrial Hearings. 39

46.    Pretrial Identifications 39

47.    Probable Cause. 40

48.    Recusal 41

49.    Regulations 41

50.    Representation. 42

a.      Conflict‑Free Representation. 42

b.     Disqualification of Counsel 42

c.      Hybrid Representation. 42

d.     Ineffective Representation. 43

e.      Pro Se Representation. 44

f.      Right to Counsel 44

g.     Substitution of Counsel 44

h.     Waiver of Representation. 45

i.       Withdrawal of Counsel 45

51.    Sealed Materials. 46

52.    Search and Seizure. 46

a.      Abandonment 47

b.     Border Searches. 47

c.      Coast Guard Searches. 48

d.     Consent to Search. 48

e.      Exclusionary Rule. 48

f.      Exigent Circumstances. 49

g.      Expectation of Privacy. 49

h.     Governmental Conduct 49

i.       Inevitable Discovery. 50

j.       Investigatory Stops. 50

k.     Issuance of a Search Warrant 51

l.       Knock and Announce. 52

m.    Private Searches. 52

n.     Probable Cause. 53

o.     Probation/Parole Searches 53

p.     Protective Sweeps 54

q.     Reasonable Suspicion. 54

r.      Rule 41(g) Motions 55

s.      Suppression Motions 55

t.      Terry Stops. 56

u.     Warrantless Searches and Seizures 57

53.    Selective Prosecution. 58

54.    Severance. 59

55.    Sixth Amendment Rights. 59

56.    Speedy Trial 62

57.    Statutes 63

58.    Statutes of Limitation. 65

59.    Suppression. 65

60.    Transfer of Trial 66

61.    Venue. 66

62.    Vindictive Prosecution. 66

63.    Voluntariness of a Confession. 67

64.    Waiver of Rights. 67

65.    Warrants 67

66.    Wiretaps 68

 

C.    Trial Decisions in Criminal Cases. 69

1.    Acquittals. 69

2.    Admission of Evidence. 71

3.    Allen Charges. 72

4.    Authenticity. 72

5.    Batson Claims. 72

6.    Best Evidence Rule. 73

7.    Bruton Violations 74

8.    Burden of Proof 74

9.    Chain of Custody. 74

10.    Character Evidence. 74

11.    Closing Arguments. 75

12.    Coconspirator Statements 76

13.    Comments on the Evidence. 77

14.    Confrontation Clause. 77

15.    Constitutionality of Regulations. 78

16.    Constitutionality of Statutes. 79

17.    Contempt 79

18.    Continuances. 80

19.    Credibility Determinations. 81

20.    Cross‑Examination. 81

21.    Documentary Evidence. 82

22.    Double Jeopardy. 83

23.    Entrapment 84

24.    Evidentiary Rulings. 85

25.    Expert Testimony. 86

26.    Extrinsic Evidence. 88

27.    Federal Rules. 88

28.    Fifth Amendment Rights. 88

29.    Griffin Violations 89

30.    Hearsay. 89

31.    Immunity from Prosecution. 91

32.    Impeachment Evidence. 91

33.    In Absentia Proceedings 92

34.    In‑Court Identification. 92

35.    Ineffective Assistance of Counsel 92

36.    Jewell Instruction. 94

37.    Judge Conduct 94

38.    Juror Misconduct 94

39.    Jury Examination of Evidence. 97

40.    Jury Inquiries. 98

a.      District Court’s Response. 98

b.     Supplemental Instructions 98

41.    Jury Instructions 99

a.      Formulation of Instructions 99

b.     Adequacy of Instructions. 99

c.      Denial of Requested Instruction. 100

d.     Special Verdict Forms 101

e.      Due Process Challenges. 102

f.      Procedure for Reviewing Instructions 102

g.      Harmless Error and Plain Error 103

h.     Invited Error 103

i.       Allen Charges. 104

j.       Jewell Instructions 104

42.    Jury Selection. 104

a.      Challenges for Cause. 104

i.      Voir Dire/Peremptory Challenges. 104

ii.    Jury Misconduct 106

b.     Jury Composition/Batson Claims. 106

c.      Anonymous Jury. 108

43.    Materiality of a False Statement 108

44.    Opening Statements 109

45.    Opinion Evidence. 109

a.      Expert Opinion Evidence. 109

i.      Admission or Exclusion of Evidence. 109

ii.    Reliability. 111

iii.   Qualifications. 111

iv.   Funds/Expert Appointment Request 111

b.     Lay Opinion Testimony. 111

46.    Photographs 112

47.    Presence of Defendant 112

48.    Prior Crimes, Wrongs or Acts. 112

a.      Fed. R. Evid. 404(b) 112

b.     Fed. R. Evid. 608. 113

c.      Fed. R. Evid. 609. 113

49.    Privileges. 114

a.      Attorney-Client, Doctor-Patient, Marital 114

b.     Fifth Amendment/Defendant’s Silence. 115

50.    Fed. R. Evid. 403 – Probative Value vs. Prejudicial Harm.. 116

51.    Prosecutorial Misconduct 117

a.      Generally. 117

b.     Bolstering/Vouching. 118

c.      Dismissal 118

d.     Grand Jury Misconduct 119

e.      Disqualification of Prosecutor 119

f.      Suppression of Exculpatory Evidence. 119

52.    Rebuttal and Surrebuttal Evidence. 119

53.    Recess. 120

54.    Recusal and Disqualification of Judge. 120

55.    Relevancy of Evidence. 121

56.    Reopening. 121

57.    Rule of Completeness 121

58.    Sanctions. 121

59.    Shackling. 123

60.    Side-Bar Conferences. 123

61.    Witnesses. 123

a.      District Court Decisions 123

b.     Witness Immunity. 125

 

D.   Post-Trial Decisions in Criminal Cases 125

1.    Allocution. 125

2.    Appeals 126

3.    Apprendi Violations 127

4.    Arrest of Judgment 128

5.    Attorneys’ Fees. 128

6.    Bail Pending Sentence and Appeal 128

7.    Correcting/Amending/Reducing Sentences. 129

8.    Disciplinary Orders. 130

9.    Expungement 130

10.    Fines. 130

11.    Forfeiture. 130

12.    Mistrial 131

13.    New Trial 132

14.    Parole. 133

15.    Probation. 134

16.    Resentencing. 135

17.    Restitution. 136

18.    Fed. R. Crim. P. 32. 137

19.    Sentencing. 138

a.      Applicability of the Sentencing Guidelines and pre-Guidelines Standards of Review.. 138

b.     Application of the Guidelines to Specific Facts. 139

c.      Constitutionality. 140

d.     Continuances. 141

e.      Correcting/Amending/Reducing Sentences and Rule 35. 141

f.      Departures. 142

g.      Disparate Sentences. 144

h.     Factual Findings. 145

i.       Fines. 145

j.       Interpretation and Application of Sentencing Guidelines. 146

i.      Abuse of Trust Enhancement 146

ii.    Prior Conviction. 147

iii.   Prison Credit Time. 147

iv.   Aggravated Felonies. 147

v.    Approximation of Drug Quantities. 147

vi.   Grouping of Offenses. 148

vii.  Reductions for Change in Guideline Range (§ 3582(c)(2)) 148

k.     Legality. 148

l.       Restitution. 148

m.    Rule 32. 150

20.    Sufficiency of the Evidence. 150

21.    Supervised Release. 152

22.    Transcripts 153

23.    Writ Ad Testificandum.. 154

24.    Writ of Audita Querela. 155

25.    Writ of Coram Nobis 155

E.    Habeas Corpus Petitions. 155

1.    28 U.S.C. § 2241